(Federico Morelli, Anders Pape Møller, Emma Nelson, Yanina Benedetti, Wei Liang, Petra Šímová, Marco Moretti, Piotr Tryjanowski 29 June 2017)
Why is the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus a fascinating bird species for humans? What are the main reasons for the species being known as “a messenger of spring and morality”1, and why is it so conspicuous in human culture? A review of folklore shows clearly that the enigmatic cuckoo has driven the collective imagination of people throughout the world for thousands of years. First and foremost the cuckoo-call is associated with seasonal change. The timing of arrival of the cuckoo and the vigour of its calls were also used as indicators of the weather2, 3. In ancient Egypt, Aristophanes wrote that its arrival was associated with harvest time2. Cuckoo lore is intimately linked with change and metamorphosis1,2,3 and its call reflects the real world passing of time when seeds are transformed into crops, maidens are married and maids become mothers.
A total of 65,234 observations of bird occurrence in 3,592 sample sites in different environments were collected from ten European and two Asian countries. The maximum bird species richness per point count in all countries ranged from 12 species (Finland), to 28 species (San Marino and Switzerland).
Sample sites were treated as statistically independent observations because the spatial autocorrelation in all studied countries was not significant
The temporal trend in common cuckoo populations was positively correlated with the overall trend in bird populations in European countries
Cuckoo as indicator: Extending species surrogacy from Europe to Asia
This study provides new evidence on the common cuckoo as a surrogate of bird species richness, previously tested in some European countries. This suggests that the common cuckoo is potentially a prime bioindicator in Eurasia. Even if related to different host species, and considering that the common cuckoo is not the only parasitic cuckoo in Asia24, we found the same pattern than in Europe: Occurrence of the common cuckoo is positively correlated with bird species richness in both continents. The implications related to finding the same pattern in Europe and in Asia are important from an ecological point of view. First, in Asia, C. canorus has different host species than in Europe. Second, the common cuckoo is not the only brood parasite in China and Japan. So, C. canorus is subject to a greater competitive pressure from other cuckoo species in Asia than in Europe. However, common cuckoo still shows the same capacity as surrogate of bird species richness, highlighting the process linking this particular (and charismatic species) to overall bird diversity.
Our study shows that the population trend of common cuckoo, as well as climate suitability trend for the common cuckoo, follow the overall trend for populations of all other passerines species and the climate suitability trend in all Europena countries. This result supports the hypothesis that common cuckoo is a suitable bioindicator, making the species also sensible to climate change scenarios. When using proxies of population trends, many aspects need to be considered. For instance if within country variation in population abundance trends of different species is larger or smaller than variation among countries, and also how trends of other bird species can be related to the average community trend.