Tag Archives: reintroduction

Can we bring vultures back to Thailand?

(Authors: Dr. Boripat Siriaroonrat and Kaset Sutasha; Photo: Lip Kee; )

It’s the most dramatic bird decline ever recorded – faster even than those that robbed our planet of the Passenger Pigeon Ectopistes migratorius or the Dodo Raphus cucullatus. Since the 1990s, a staggering 99% of the vulture population in Asia have disappeared – a drop from several million to just a few thousand.

As a result of these steep declines, four species of Asian vulture – White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis, Red-headed Vulture Sarcogyps calvus, Slender-billed Vulture Gyps tenuirostris and Indian Vulture Gyps indicus – are now assessed as being Critically Endangered – the highest threat category of all, and a status that indicates that if we do not continue to act, they will disappear from Asia’s skies within our lifetimes.

The main driver for the decline of vultures on the Indian subcontinent is well-publicised – the use of the veterinary drug Diclofenac to control pain and muscle fatigue in sick and aging cattle. Unfortunately, the drug proved lethal to vultures, who were unwittingly killed in large numbers in South Asia when they feasted on the poisoned carcasses of cattle who were left out in the open to die by herders.

Fortunately, the use of Diclofenac is now banned in India, Nepal and Pakistan, and thanks to the introduction of initiatives such as Safe Zones (areas in which threats are controlled within a 100kn radius, allowing viable populations to develop), vulture numbers are now finally stabilising on the Indian subcontinent. But why have vultures all but disappeared from other parts of Asia where Diclofenac isn’t an issue – as just as importantly, can we bring them back?

In Thailand, as in other parts of South-East Asia, Diclofenac isn’t an issue for vultures. Although the drug is widely available in pharmacies, it comes in cream and tablet forms, and is intended for human use – not for cattle. Despite this, the situation for vultures is even worse than it is in India – although two migratory species Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus and Himalayan Griffon Gyps himalayensis, can still be spotted every winter, all three of the species that were once resident in the country (Red-headed Vulture White-rumped Vulture and Slender-billed Vulture) are now extinct in Thailand.

Of the three, the Red-headed Vulture was the most abundant and could be found right in the center of Bangkok until the late 1960s-early 1970s, when burials were not widely practiced and dead bodies were left in the open waiting to be burned.  A cholera outbreak in Bangkok in the 19th Century is immortalised by sculptures of vultures feeding on corpses at the Golden Mountain (Wat Saket), which are still standing for us to see today even if the birds themselves are not. Vultures took advantage of the dead bodies until the modernization of the country in the 20th Century.  With cemeteries now becoming normal practice, vultures have struggled in the face of the reduced food availability

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California Condors Could Soon Soar Above the Redwoods Again Thanks to One Local Tribe

(Tyler Hayden; March 7, 2017)

For more than a decade the Yurok Tribe has been pushing to reintroduce the culturally significant bird to Northern California. Now, supported by scientific research and a host of agencies and organizations, a plan is taking shape.

More than a century has passed since our continent’s largest land bird soared among the world’s tallest trees. The last California Condor of the Pacific Northwest was shot and killed sometime between 1890 and 1910 in a tiny town outside Redwood National Park. Glass-eyed and dusty, the bird is mounted at the nearby Clarke Historical Museum in Eureka.

Not far from Eureka, along the same stretch of California coastline, the Yurok tribe calls home an area around the Klamath River, which meanders from Southern Oregon into Northern California. Like their ancestors, the Yurok still build sweathouses from fallen redwoods and fish the river for salmon. But the tribe aches to be reunited with prey-go-neesh—their ancestral name for the condor. “To us, he is the king of the sky,” says tribe chairman Thomas P. O’Rourke, Sr. “His absence is a hole in our hearts.”

The Yurok believe that when the creator was designing the world, he asked each animal spirit to contribute a prayer in song; the gangly yet graceful condor crooned a song more beautiful than any before it. Today, despite the birds’ decades of absence, tribal dancers wearing condor feathers handed down through generations chant his name during their annual renewal ceremonies.

To reclaim this missing piece of their cultural landscape, Yurok elders voted in 2003 to reintroduce condors to their lands. For a group of native people with limited funds, it was a bold and rare move. But the decision, O’Rourke says, was an easy one for the 5,000-member tribe, the largest in California. “No world can function and stay in balance until it is whole,” he says.

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